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Before entering into a rescue scene, the rescuer should perform an initial assessment to ensure that the scene is safe. Next, personal protective equipment should be worn to protect them before beginning to help. Introduce yourself and ask permission to help them.

The ABCD's concept is designed to give the first aider a guide to what to do in a first aid emergency and to show all the primary care and life-threatening conditions. You start with the "A" for Airway and open the patient's airway by moving the tongue from the back of the throat, which often blocks breathing.

Next, check for "B" - Breathing. If they are not breathing, check "C" - Circulation and then commence the administration of CPR. The next thing the patient needs is "D" - Defibrillation, where an electric shock interrupts a cardiac arrest and hopefully allows the heart to start again. Once these are all ok, then we move on to the "S" of serious bleeding, shock and spinal injury.

If alone, the rescuer may need to put the patient in the recovery position whilst leaving to contact the emergency services, if the patient is breathing. The recovery position allows the patient to breathe easily, stay safe, and it takes away the risk of them choking if they vomit. Monitor their vital signs and keep them warm and comfortable until the EMS arrives.

If the patient is not breathing, call the EMS if not already done, then commence CPR.

A patient in an Anaphylaxis emergency should sit or lay down and if they become unconscious, place them in the recovery position and monitor their breathing. The EMS should always be called.

Remember that First aid is designed to prevent a patient worsening and this can be done with some simple, easy skills.